The influences of Bauhaus on Architecture in Tehran

The influences of Bauhaus on Architecture in Tehran

Hosna Pourhashemi

Is Iranian architecture influenced by the German school “Bauhaus”?
Surrounded as we are today by examples of the Bauhaus philosophy of design – in architecture and housing, painting, sculpture, photography and film, theater, industrial design, pottery and metal work, textiles, advertising, and typography – few can be unaware of the importance of this monumental German institution.


Cultural background
The development of the idea of the Bauhaus, the founding of the Bauhaus school can be seen as the end point – and a starting point – of a cultural, on various design and intellectual explorations and disputes towards the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in Europe. On the background of a critical artistic, cultural, and creative, but also political confrontation with the prevailing orders of historicism, the movement of Art Nouveau and the idea of Werkbund had first emerged, which on the basis of an exploration of nature led among other things to a new understanding of painting, sculpture, and architecture, both in terms of idea and design.

The founding of the Bauhaus took place at a time of radical change. Politically, for example, in the time of the Russian Revolution. Artistically, for example, in a time when other artistic disciplines were also looking for minimalist, abstract, but nevertheless expressive forms of communication and design. For example, in the years before 1920, the so-called twelve-tone music was developed in the circle of the music composer Arnold Schönberg (1874-1951).


Specific cultural backgrounds of Bauhaus
The Bauhaus teachers, architects and artists of the period were fascinated by the shapes and colors of the Islamic countries, their buildings, fabrics and works of art. Generations of artists and architects started to visit and study the cultures of the asian and islamic world and what were then called the primitive cultures – regions of the world in Africa and oceania.

The confrontation with works of foreign cultures led to a reflection on elementary forms of expression and design. Plastic representations of the human physiognomy and the body of these cultures were transformed into abstracted, cubist and expressionist presentations of man and his environment. Studies of vernacular and urban structures of islamic near east and northern Africa inspired to develop elementary, minimalistic and formally abstract spacial solutions of the so-called classic modernism. 


Important influences of Bauhaus
The Bauhaus design legacy seems more presents than before, which had far-reaching influence, in spite of the fact that the famous German school of design lasted merely 14 years and enrolled fewer than 1,400 students. Known for its interdisciplinary focus, merging arts, crafts, industrial design, and architecture, its attention to scale went from a cream pitcher to a city plan. In its short life, it had three directors and three locations (Bayer 1938: 118). Within a short period of time, the ideas of the Bauhaus found a broad echo in the culturally interested world of artists, designers and architects. the didactic clarity of the Bauhaus' conceptual debate led to a form of synthesis with other, simultaneously emerging forms of debate, e.g. futurism and dadaism. In various regions of the world, links took place with vernacular, artisanal, but also formalized and historicized forms of representation. In Italy, reductionist formal concepts found their parallel in rationalism, which later, in combination with classicist principles, led to fascist architecture. In Switzerland, for example, modern principles were combined to form the so-called “Heimatstil”. As there was no formal training in landscape at Bauhaus, the question is: If Bauhaus influenced the landscape architecture over the last century? And how?

The most successful and and very important legacy of the Bauhaus is the formation of the international style, created by Walter Gropius and Mies Van der Rohe, who were both heads of the Bauhaus for two periods. International style, as a result of the overwhelming influence of North American economic hegemony after World War II, was a new global style formed by combining Bauhaus aesthetic ideas with new industry and technology, which was quite functional. Emerging international corporations began to set the scene worldwide with technically industrialized forms.

In which cultural background the influence of Bauhaus had been emerged in Iranian architecture? Has the arrival of Bauhaus school in Iran been by diplomats and how?


Diplomatic relations between Iran and Germany
Goethe’s dedication of his West-östlicher Divan (West-Eastern Divan) to Hafez in 1819 is an illustration of how far back such cultural ties went. Amir Kabir (1807-1852) always showed interest in discussing the structural system of Germany's government and society as a model for modernizing his country. As early as June 11, 1873, a treaty of friendship and navigation was concluded between the German Empire and the then Persia, which also included the mutual establishment of permanent representations. The first German legation at Nasreddin Shah's court was established eleven years later, on October 20, 1884, by the envoy on extraordinary mission Ernst von Braunschweig.

The present chancery property in the heart of Tehran (Ferdowsi Ave.) was acquired for the German Empire ten years later by the envoy Count von Wallwitz. The first land registration was made in 1931, but the two-story building was constructed by a European architect as early as 1884-1886. After its acquisition by the German Empire, it was rebuilt and renovated several times until it had to be demolished and rebuilt in 1937. In the middle of the World War II, in 1941, the new chancery buildings were completed by Holzmann AG – Defendant Philipp Holzmann AG is a German company, that during World War II was paid to perform architectural and construction work for the Nazi government[1] –and immediately confiscated by the Imperial Iranian Government. The Swedish Embassy moved into the Chancery, as Sweden acted as Germany's protecting power during the war. In 1949, the property was handed over to the Americans, who used it until they completed their own embassy in 1953. In that year, the confiscation was lifted[2].  

While Post-World War II, official diplomatic relations between Iran and Germany began in 1952, when Iran opened its first diplomatic mission office in Bonn. At the same time, Iran came under the inescapable diplomatic shadow of the United States, lessening chances of further deepening relations between Tehran and Bonn. The Federal Republic of Germany was not able to finally secure ownership of the chancery until 1977 by means of a transfer of title. In 1972, following the visit to Tehran of the West German chancellor Willy Brandt, Iran and West Germany signed an economic agreement which provided for Iranian exports of oil and natural gas to Germany, with West German exports to and investments in Iran in return. When did the first German engineers and architects come to Iran? Who sent and fund the Iranian students to study and work in Germany?

The residence of the German ambassador in the Elahiye district, in the quieter north of the city, was acquired by bill of sale in 1904. It too was confiscated in 1941 and subsequently used as a residence by the Swedish Embassy during the summer months. Two years later, the Iranian Ministry of Foreign Affairs took over the building, which initially served as the summer residence of the Iranian Prime Minister and was later used for receptions. In 1953, its confiscation was also lifted. However, as with the Chancellery, the transfer in the land register did not take place until 1977. There was a Qajaren palace on the property until 1974, which eventually had to be demolished due to its dilapidation. The current residency built based on the Bauhaus disciplines was completed in 1977[3]. Who was the architect of current residency in Elahiye?  


Industrial schools
During Qajar period, Mahmoud Alamir, entitled Ehtesham ol-Saltaneh, the Iranian Prime Minister in Berlin, was encouraged to establish a school in cooperation with Germany. Iran and Germany agreed to establish high school that would be administered according to German methods. In 1907, the first industrial conservatory of Iran was planned by a German architect in Tehran. It was established under the name of "Iran-Germany High School" _ now named after the martyr Ayatollah Beheshti_ by the "Institute of Cultural Cooperation between Iran and Germany", which is now known as the "Goethe Institute". An institution whose main goal is to teach and promote the German language and culture, but from the first years of its activity, it has paid much attention to cultural exchanges between Iran and Germany. Prominent teachers from Germany were sent to Tehran to teach the students in this high school.[4]

By beginning the World War I, the Iran-Germany High School was closed from 1916. In 1925, a mutual modern school of Iran and Germany was reestablished which was entitled “The Industrial Art School of Iran and Germany”, responsible for training dexterous engineering forces. This school was arranged to teach engineering science and the construction of engineering centers to ambitious students. Iran's National Assembly authorized the employment of three German specialists to teach and manage school affairs. The curriculum of this school consisted of teaching simultaneously the science, industry, and vocational-trainings. (Yarshater 2005: 211) How the Industrial Art School of Iran and Germany paved the way for the emerging of the Bauhaus in Iran?


The influence of Bauhaus in Iran
The influence of the original participants of the Bauhaus school, plus their activities, ideas, and their successors are being explored far beyond the Bauhaus birthplace. How profound was the reach of the Bauhaus and its influence in Iran? Is the Bauhaus influence still matter in Iranian Villa? There is no former study about the influence of Bauhaus on Iranian architecture. Is there any basis for this influences’ research at all?

Bauhaus is considered as the most effective export article of German culture in the twentieth century. By the creation of Bauhaus the basic lessons entered the schools and aesthetics views were formed based on its principles. Plans with straight lines, forms which follows function, materials which reflect the true nature of objects and buildings and minimalist style are some of the Bauhaus characteristics. In fact, what led to the formation of the modernist style was the Bauhaus, explaining the principles and rules of modernism and exporting them to the whole world. This school of art was able to turn the ideas of painters into a practical space for modern life. Many buildings and crafts were created by the influence of the Bauhaus in different countries. Based on Bani Massoud’s lecturer in the Contemporary Architects Association on 05.05.2019, in the second Pahlavi era some architects such as, Vartan Hovanesian and Paul Abkar studied in Europe and came back to Iran. They were the first generation of architects, who brought the Modernism to Iran. Each of these architects created buildings Influenced by the West; of course only the form of Bauhaus came to Iran. As Mies van der Rohe said: “The fact that the Bauhaus was an idea is the cause of the enormous influence it had on any progressive school around the world. You cannot do that with organization, you cannot do that with propaganda. Only an idea spreads so far.” In an interview with Amir Abbas Aboutalebi (Sep. 2021), he stated: that “the Bauhaus came and spread in Iran through villas”.

Mostly, the modern architecture in the history of Iran cannot be drawn between the styles, but in a combination way. Perhaps the international style is mixed with the Bauhaus, and vice versa; it is not very clear that a building could be considered entirely international or Bauhaus style; but a range of these styles can be seen. Based on the functionalist tradition of European-American modernism, the international style, which Philip Johnson and Henry-Russell Hitchcock showcased in New York in 1932, modern buildings should look simple, and outer walls should be large, smooth surfaces with regular texture.

The works of Heydar Ghiai, Vartan Hovanesian, Paul Abkar and Abdol Aziz Farmanfarmaian can be studied influenced by the Bauhaus. In all of them, the modern materials, straight lines on plans and buildings with no decorating can be seen. Which other architects influenced by the Bauhaus  school in Tehran, and further in Iran?


Bauhaus in Tehran
Tehran is an undiscovered metropolis of classical modernism. In the center of the Iranian capital are hundreds of buildings that impressively reveal Shah Reza Pahlavi's will to renew. Tehran could rightfully claim to be a "Bauhaus city”, much like Tel Aviv has been doing for several years. 

However there is no former research about the influence of the Bauhaus school on Iranian architecture, this contribution aims to give an insight into the history and present of the "Bauhaus city" Tehran and the influence of Bauhaus on modern architecture in Tehran. The renewal of Tehran is directly linked to the state and social reforms of Reza Pahlavi. Influenced by the Turkish model (Mustafa Kemal Atatürk), Pahlavi sought to expand the military, education, technical, and transportation infrastructure, had a language reform worked out, promoted a return to ancient Persian culture and established a preservation of monuments, he propagated Western styles of dress and forced the return of Iranian leaders from abroad. All of this was to be financed by renegotiating oil supply contracts with England.

Modern architecture is, as it were, the "face" of this comprehensive state reconstruction. In 1933, Reza Shah appointed Gabriel Guévrékian, an Iranian of Armenian descent, as Tehran's city architect and city planner. Guévrékian studied in Vienna under Oskar Strand, had previously built in Paris and Vienna (Werkbundsiedlung), cultivated friendships with the architectural avant-garde, Joseph Hoffmann and Adolf Loos, knew personalities such as Walter Gropius and Le Corbusier, was co-founder and first secretary of the Congrès Intenationaux d’ Architecture Moderne (CIAM), and brought their ideas to Tehran. Under his leadership, the "Bauhaus City" of Tehran was built in just under 10 years as the capital of modern Iran. His tenure covered major new buildings for houses, residences and several government buildings.


Some projects under influences of Bauhaus in Tehran
The first step was the international competition for the new Tehran Stock Exchange. Subsequently, ministries, the university, the central bank in Ferdowsi St., shopping arcades, cinemas, hotels, the central hospital and train station (in cooperation with Dyckerhoff and Widmann), new infrastructure (electricity, gas), schools, villas of rich merchants and entrepreneurs, and countless residential and commercial buildings whose dynamic streamlines shape entire streets of downtown Tehran were built. This is important, because it caused modernity to be taught first-hand in Iran.

Avant-garde projects re-interpreting the Iranian house are rarely found in Iran of the 1930s. An innovative project of this time is Gabriel Guévrékian’s villa for the Malek Aslani family, where modern design meets local architecture and all elements are in a more modern architectural language. The architect managed to connect the Qadjar spirit with modern European living ideas, resulting in a house which was not alien to the Iranians and, as Bruno Taut said, is of “value to the whole world” (Meyer-Wieser 2017: 335)

The Villa of Ali-Akbar Siassi, a remarkable Iranian intellectual, psychologist and foreign minister, was designed by Gabriel Guévrékian in the 1930s. The villa is a functional and simple building, which corresponds in many respects to Loos’ Moller House. The interior of the villa follows the model of a Raumplan, developed by Adolf Loos in 1910. The garden uses the traditional Persian vocabulary – a central water axis – complemented with European elements. (Meyer-Wieser 2017: 344)

The Villa Shahab Khosrovany, built by Gabriel Guévrékian in 1936 in Tehran, generally follows the five points for a new architecture, which Le Corbusier had formulated in the 1930s to support the basic principles of mouvement moderne. Guévrékian built an outward house, where the houses traditionally are oriented inward, and tried to realise liberated living even in an open floor plan by separating the rooms from each other not by walls but by differences in elevation. The similarity to the Villa Heim built by Gabriel Guévrékian a few years previously in Paris, or the Villa Stein in Garches by Le Corbusier in 1926, is obvious and shows how prevalent the evolving modernity in Iran was compared to Europe. (Meyer-Wieser 2017: 349)

Heydar Gholi Khan Ghiai-Chamlou (1922-1985) was an Iranian architect, was born in Tehran, decisively settled in France later. He graduated from the École des Beaux-Arts in 1952, and was known as a pioneer of modern architecture in Iran. He designed the Senate House, the Royal Tehran Hilton Hotel, several train stations, cinemas, various civic and government buildings and the first series of state of the art hospitals. In France, he designed the Cité Universitaire aka Avicenne Foundation, amongst others.

In 1968, he was nominated architect to the imperial court of Iran and commissioned the vast project of a complex of imperial palaces situated in Farah Abad. As a Professor of Architecture at the University of Tehran, he taught several generations of architects. The firm of Heydar Ghiai & Associates has now been renamed Ghiai Architects, based in San Francisco headed by his son Yves Ghiai and his granddaughter Anahita Ghiai. Ghiai was one of the first persons, who try to apply a kind of international style at the University of fine Arts in Tehran. He was known as a pioneer of modern architecture in Iran and was one of the first persons who worked with glass facades and modern elements.

Abdol Aziz Farman-Farmaian was born is Shiraz in 1920 as the tenth son to Prince Abdol-Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma, at the time Governor General of the province of Shiraz. Architectural studies were initiated in the École Spéciale d'Architecture, where he started to prepare for the Beaux Arts School. The final project presented as his thesis was the design for a modern caravanserai to be situated in southern Iran. This project received the prize for the best thesis (diploma) of the year. In 1950 Abdol Aziz Farman-Farmaian moved back to Tehran for good until 1979, where he proceeded to create one of Iran's most important modern-day architectural legacies.

The initial years—the Razmara period followed by the Mossadegh years – were marked by an unstable political and economical situation. Abdol Aziz Farman-Farmaian started to work as a civil servant at the university of Tehran in the Department of Construction where he became departmental director after a few years. During the same period he was given a professorial chair at the Tehran University school of Architecture (Daneshkadeh Honarhaie Ziba), where he taught students architecture until 1957-58.

In 1954 Abdol Aziz Farman-Farmaian was admitted by the Planning Organization as a recognized consultant, at this time when Abdol Aziz Farman-Farmaian designed numerous private residences for his extended relatives, friends and clients. The legal entity that was set up was known as Abdol Aziz Farman-Farmaian Institute. In 1976, the company known as AFFA, Abdol Aziz Farman-Farmaian and Associates, was created for the design of the Stadium and in accordance with the directive of the Planning Organization to be associated with younger architects. The new associates were belonged to Reza Majd and Farokh Hirbod, both graduates from first-class American universities. AFFA's associates increased with the years. Kamran Diba said about Farman-farmaian that he is the father of Consulting Engineers. One of the achievements of his office is introduction of advanced technology in high buildings. (Memar No. 15 Winter 2002)

Abdul Aziz Farman-Farmaian said in an interview with Mohammad Reza Moghtader, published in the 22nd issue of Memar Magazine (Fall 2003): “As you know, I was graduated from the École des Beaux-Arts, where at first they only taught classical architecture, which started with Vitruvius. So the work of classical architecture was formed in our minds, but after a year of working in a modern studio, the classical architecture would be erased by prescribing modern one, making modern architecture a dogma, a law, and even more the law for us. And we have to worry all the time so that our work does not resemble the old classical works, so we were in fact direct students of the Bauhaus school, not just us, all generations of post-war architects, even before the war, They were influenced by this school until 1980. So are you. Is that not so?”

Moghtader: "Yes, that's right."

Farman-Farmaian continues: "If this architecture could be good for Iran if the same equipment and facilities that were in California were in Iran.”

Farman-Farmaian said: “Engineer Houshang Seyhoun, like us and all architecture students around the world at that time, was influenced by the Bauhaus school”.

He goes on to say about the Bauhaus school and its influence on the generation of architects after the World War I:

"If we look a little more closely at the architectural style of buildings in major cities and capitals of the world, our attention is drawn to the similarity of them, and we see clearly the fact that most of them, while having fundamental differences in quality, beauty dimensions, materials, and some taste differences share a common identity and do not reflect the influence of national culture, or the color and flavor of the traditions of the country in which they are made, all in Shanghai and Sao Paulo and Delhi have emerged as a single form of thought, due in part to the fact that the designers of these buildings were raised in a single, unified school of architecture, the Bauhaus. This common style, which lacks national and indigenous identity, is also called the contemporary or modern international style. The founder of the Bauhaus school was Walter Gropius, who founded his school of architecture in 1919. The philosophy of the Bauhaus school was, in short, based on the idea that ‘art’ and ‘technique’ are two equally valuable factors in architectural creativity and construction and should not be separated. The successful building, from the Bauhaus school's point of view, was a combination of economics, technique and technology in art and design."

Farman-Farmaian also talks about the evolution of architecture in Iran in the years 1332-1357 (1953-1978):

"During these years, new groups of young Iranian graduates, returning to Iran with their own diplomas from the best schools of architecture in the world, started to work. It is noteworthy that they were often educated in the United States, which was another development, because before that the destination of Iranian students were European countries, especially France, Italy and Germany. They were naturally influenced by American culture, and that influence was quite evident in both their social life and their professional activities. Unfortunately, if at all, it was the Bauhaus School's influence and the overwhelming influence of Western culture that kept us away from taking advantage of our country's cultural heritage and works of art”.

Moreover, in an interview with Farman-Farmaian about his biography and activities, he mentioned that all of his works, except for the mosque at University of Tehran, were influenced by the Bauhaus style[5].


Vartan Hovanesian, as an Iranian Armenian architect who was born in 1896, Vartan Hovanesian played a key role in modern Iran after pursuing academic study of architecture in École Spéciale d'Architecture of Paris. He graduated from the school in 1922 and took part in different projects in Paris. In 1935, his return to Iran was coincided with two major events, including the political situation in Iran and art movements in Paris. Iran had welcomed modernism in every aspect of society, technology and art, which created a foundation for modernist architects such as Vartan to present and implement their ideas. His career as a prominent architect in Iran started with his winning proposal for a Girls’ Vocational School in Tehran. (Khavari 2018)

Vartan who preferred the title, “Architect Vartan” tried to address different issues in architecture based on his academic knowledge and professional background. In many cases he benefited from historical European style in plans and used modern materials and details in other aspects of his architecture. His unique style was a delicate amalgam of Art Nouveau, Bauhaus and architects such as Auguste Perret and Le Corbusier. Characteristics of his design are asymmetric buildings, in contrast to traditional buildings of Iran, pure forms, ribbon windows, suspended staircase and cement as a finishing material for facades.

Vartan founded and contributed to The Society of Iranian Architects in Iran as the paragon of modern architecture who helped to improve the modern architecture in Iran. He criticized superficial use of forms of the traditional architecture in new buildings, instead, “he believed modern spirit should be blown into the architecture with consideration of Iranians’ cultural needs and the climate of Iran” (Khavari 2018).

In practice, he published numerous articles in different magazines including “The Architect” and “The New Architecture” which was later founded and published by him personally in Tehran. The publications were used to announce manifestos of the new wave. He is known as the first architect who practiced the International Style in Iran. As a part of his professional career, he was assigned as the chief architect for designing branches of Sepah Bank. Besides, he is one of the earliest architects who contributed to define the National Building Code of Iran. In many aspects, his legacy was handed down to the second wave of architects of Iran such as Hooshang Seyhoun, Hadi Mirmiran and Hossein Amanat. Architect Vartan will be remembered as one of the founding fathers of the modern architecture in Iran. One can state that the first wave architects had truly realized the spirit of modernism and tried to blend it with traditional architecture of Iran to create the modern architecture of Iran (Khavari 2018).[6]

Characteristics of his design are asymmetric buildings, in contrast to traditional buildings of Iran, pure forms, ribbon windows, suspended staircase and cement as a finishing material for facades.

Some of his notable projects are Metropol and Diana movie-theaters, Ferdowsi Hotel, Darband Hotel, Guest House of Tehran Railroad, Central Building of Sepah Bank and its Isfahan Branch, Shahreza Apartments, Sa'ad Abad Royal Palace, Jeep Building and Girls’ Vocational School of Tehran.


Paul Abkar was born in 1908 in Tehran and after his education in architecture at the University of San Lucas in Brussels, he returned to Iran in 1937 and began his career after serving in the military. He was one of the leaders of the modernist movement in Iran, which had adapted its buildings with a taste that was well adapted to local conditions. Plumbing buildings have features that are fully identifiable. His brick buildings are dipped in with little entrances and the rocks around it are one of the suitable patterns for the residential houses in Tehran.

He designed many buildings that are part of them: Niagara Cinema Building, The first radio station (wireless), Building of the Catholic Armenian Church, Khorasan School of Dance and Gardens, All Property Buildings and Property Offices of Provinces and Customs Offices.

Paul Abkar also built many residential villas of great reputation. His latest project in the Tehran Municipality Palace Competition won first prize, which, unfortunately, was not implemented.

Different buildings based on modern Iranian architectural styles were created by people who studied in European and American countries. Paul Abkar in an interview with No.2 of Art and Architecture magazine says: “Some of our young people went abroad, and many of them studied architecture and returned and began to build European buildings.” He says: “Those who went to England, built on English type, those who went to America built on American type and etc.” Based on this interview, the Bauhaus was also brought to Iran by architects who studying at that time in European countries, especially Germany.


Roland Marcel Dubrulle was born in 1907 in the city of Ermanther in northern France. He studied architecture at the French School of Fine Arts. When he won the competition for the Tehran Stock Exchange, he left his country for Iran.

At a glance, the type and manner of his work can be called modern and structural. Bigger designs such as state-owned buildings and the building of Dubrulle have a clear-cut view of the central district. His other plans, which have a more varied program (residential villas, sports stadiums, etc.), show a greater variety and ingenuity than the fully functional maps, the volume and the materials used.


Ras center
The beautiful villa that has been established today in the cultural center of rash, is a real estate that according to the document was once owned by Ahmad Mosaddegh, the son of Dr. Mohammad Mosaddegh , and was later inherited by his son. In this garden, Dr. Mohammad Mosaddegh was arrested in 1938. Later on, along with the historical monument related to the Pahlavi period this garden is sold to the Afshar family. This family has kept this old and valuable monument until today. Probably, it was built by Dubrulle in the north of Tehran.

Walter Gropius believed that the beauty of a knob is to open the door well, the beauty of the plane is to fly well, the beauty of the locomotive is to moving well on the rail, the beauty is to creating an Optimum function and there should not be more than it (Soltanali[7] 2015).


The next Bauhaus
Why are we still talking about the Bauhaus? Why has no design school superseded its influence in the intervening century?

If we are talking about the school, rather than a style, we need to acknowledge there is no such thing as the Bauhaus. The school went through several manifestations during its short existence. The central idea behind its founding was Gropius’s utopian vision of uniting all the arts under one roof, reminiscent of composer Richard Wagner’s earlier efforts to unify all arts via opera into “the total work of art”. After four years, Gropius abruptly changed course, adopting a new focus on design for mass production; “Art into industry” was the new motto. Hannes Mayer, Gropius successor, took the school in a more overtly political direction, putting an emphasis on “design for the masses” that would become one of the school’s hallmarks. If the Bauhaus owes its origin to Gropius, it owes its influence in the realm of architecture to Mies. He doubled down on the bauhaus’s emphasis on understanding materials, explaining, “No design is possible until the materials with which you design are completely understood,” and, like Josef Albers – who focused on the limits of visual perception – stressed objectivity and a search for “truth” in an extra-moral sense. (Ronan 2019: 131)

Through in existence for a mere 14-years, no school since has superseded the Bauhaus’s global impact on architecture and design. But it is important to remember that it did not begin as an architecture school but grew out of an arts-and-crafts movement and ideas about the relationship between art and technology. Architecture was not added as a course of study until 1927. The Bauhaus evolved into an architecture school over time, and eventually transcended the field. It is likely that the next Bauhaus will emerge from an idea about technology, and come from somewhere other than architecture. What do you think? How the Bauhaus idea was spread in Iran? What is the next bauhaus in Iran?




[1] retrieved on 08.09.2021.
[2] This paragraph is based on retrieved on 08.09.2021.
[3] This paragraph is based on retrieved on 08.09.2021.
[4] This paragraph is based on retrieved on 08.09.2021.
[5] This paragraph is based on retrieved on 24.08.2021.
[6] This paragraph is based on retrieved on 22.08.2021.
[7] Arash Soltanali is Director of the IDEA Institute.



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Bani Massoud’s lecturer in the Contemporary Architects Association on 05.05.2019.

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Khavari, F. (2018), Vartan Hovanessian, The Legacy Of Modern Iranian Architects. Retrieved from on 08.09.2021.

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